Charles Peignot, 1897–1983
Founder and first president of ATypI
Charles Peignot (1897–1983) was director of the Deberny & Peignot foundry in Paris for nearly fifty years. In 1957, with a group of delegates from type manufacturing companies, he founded Association Typographique Internationale (ATypI), and was ATypI president for 16 years. For his entire career, Charles Peignot was closely involved in the creation of all the new faces from the Deberny & Peignot foundry, which later also became a manufacturer of photocomposition discs for the Lumitype phototypesetting machine.
In the 19th century, the type foundry established by Gustave Peignot was a leading type manufacturer in France. Gustave’s son Georges took over the company after his father’s death, and his son Charles took it over when Georges and his three brothers were all killed in World War I.
Under the direction of Henri Menut, Charles learned the craft by apprenticing in all ateliers of the foundry. He completed two typeface designs left unfinished by his father, Naudin and Deberny & Peignot Garamont, and discovered that his true interests were artistic in nature. He entrusted the management of the company finances to Henri Menut and to Pierre Payet, his cousin. In 1921, all three started merger negotiations with the Laurent & Deberny foundry. The merger on July 1, 1923 allowed the company to combine Deberny’s classic punches and matrices with Peignot’s modern designs, and gave the company access to two factory facilities in Paris and Corneuve.
After finalization of the merger, Charles continued to expand his interests and artistic convictions in typeface design. In 1924, Peignot began to collaborate with Maximilien Vox, a typographer, art director, and critic — this association profoundly influenced the direction of French typography. In 1925, Peignot made connections with the key participants in the Art Deco and Modernist movements, and commissioned A.-M. Cassandre to design letters for the foundry. In 1927, Peignot launched the first edition of Arts et Métiers Graphiques, a magazine that would become a world forum for trends in the graphic arts. Peignot also acquired rights to produce a version of Futura, which Deberny & Peignot released in 1930 under the name Europe. In 1937, Cassandre designed the Peignot typeface, in which the lowercase letters are heavily influenced by the uppercase forms.
A few years after the end of World War II, Deberny & Peignot was again on track to resume its post as an important player in the typefounding business, under sole direction of Charles Peignot. In 1952, Deberny & Peignot partnered with the American-based Photon company that pioneered in the field of photocomposition, which resulted in introducing their machine onto European markets in 1954, under the name Lumitype. Despite its technological innovation, the machine did not succeed in Europe.
In 1952, Charles Peignot hired a young Swiss type designer, who would soon become a prolific contributor to modern typography: Adrian Frutiger. In the first few years at Deberny & Peignot, Frutiger drew several original typefaces (Président, Phoebus, Ondine, Méridien) and supervised conversion of other designs to the Lumitype system (Garamont, Baskerville, Bodoni). In 1957, Deberny & Peignot released Univers, Frutiger’s revolutionary typeface family of 21 styles that exploded in world market. Univers became the first typeface to be manufactured simultaneously as hand-set type, Monotype mechanical type, and phototypesetting. In 1960, Frutiger designed Egyptienne and left Deberny & Peignot to set up his own studio.
Around 1953, Peignot gathered a group of friends and colleagues to discuss issues that impacted the typography industry. Industry luminaries such as Maxmilien Vox, John Dreyfus, Hermann Zapf, Roger Excoffon and Adrian Frutiger formalized their purpose in 1957 under the title of the Association Typographique Internationale (ATypI). Charles Peignot become the organization’s first president.
Foremost on Peignot’s ATypI agenda was the fight against illegal copying of type designs—all of which were not protected under copyright law. He once stated: “I created ATypI as a place where artists and industries could regroup to fight against the copy. If artists are not protected like authors and creators are in other domains, they will renounce typographic creation.” This crusade met with minimal success. ATypI drafted a type protection treaty for presentation at an international WIPO conference in Vienna in 1973. The delegates from the eleven countries present signed the agreement, but so far, document was only ratified by Germany and the UK.
In the 1950s, ATypI published a classification method for grouping Roman-alphabet typeface designs into ten stylistic categories. The ATypI-Vox Typeface Classification System was adopted from a system that Maximilien Vox had devised in thr 1930s during his work as editor of the Deberny & Peignot general type specimen.
Peignot retired from his position at Deberny & Peignot in the early 1960s. In 1972 his family business was bought by the Swiss Haas’sche typefoundry, which later merged with Linotype. In 1973, he was succeeded by John Dreyfus as president of ATypI, after serving in this position for 16 years. Charles Peignot died in Paris in 1983 at the age of 86.
In 1982, ATypI established Prix Charles Peignot for Excellence in Type Design — an award that is presented every four or five years to a designer under the age of 35 who has made an oustanding contribution to type design. The winner is chosen by a committee of ATypI members appointed by the ATypI Board. Past recipients of Prix Charles Peignot are: Claude Mediavilla (1982), Jovica Veljović (1985), Petr van Blokland (1988), Robert Slimbach (1991), Carol Twombly (1994), Jean François Porchez (1998), Jonathan Hoefler (2002), Christian Schwartz (2007), Alexandra Korolkova (2013).
Adapted from the history of the Deberny & Peignot foundry published by Rochester Institute of Technology. Photograph of Charles Peignot by Rogi André, ca. 1930.